callout

Clark Foreman Papers


Clark Howell Foreman taught political science at Black Mountain College (Black Mountain, North Carolina) during the 1943-1944 school year. Black Mountain College was an experimental school located in Black Mountain, N.C. Established in 1933 by John A. Rice and others, the purpose of the college was to educate the whole person, with an emphasis on the role of the arts and creative thinking.Clark Foreman's papers contain letters and articles related to Black Mountain College, conflicts between members of the college community, and racial integration.

Title

Clark Foreman Papers

Collection Number

PC.1545

Date(s)

1942 - 1944

Language

English

Physical Description
Items
12
Folder
1
Abstract

Clark Howell Foreman taught political science at Black Mountain College (Black Mountain, North Carolina) during the 1943-1944 school year. Black Mountain College was an experimental school located in Black Mountain, N.C. Established in 1933 by John A. Rice and others, the purpose of the college was to educate the whole person, with an emphasis on the role of the arts and creative thinking.

Clark Foreman's papers contain letters and articles related to Black Mountain College, conflicts between members of the college community, and racial integration.

Physical Location

For current information on the location ofthese materials, please consult the Western Regional Archives.

Creator

Foreman, Clark, 1902-1977

Repository

Western Regional Archives, State Archives of North Carolina


Available for research.


Copyright is retained by the authors of these materials, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law (Title 17 US Code). Individual researchers are responsible for using these materials in conformance with copyright law as well as any donor restrictions accompanying the materials.


Processed by Ashley Yandle, February 20, 2002

Encoded by Ashley Yandle, February, 2002; additional encoding, May, 2010

Note: This collection was processed with the support of a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.


Clark Howell Foreman (1902-1977), an advocate for civil rights in the South, taught political science at Black Mountain College during the 1943-1944 school year.

Black Mountain College was an experimental school located in Black Mountain, N.C. Established in 1933 by John A. Rice and others, the purpose of the college was to educate the whole person, with an emphasis on the role of the arts and creative thinking. Despite the fact that Black Mountain College could rarely offer faculty more than room and board, a number of important teachers and artists were drawn to the school as part of the regular faculty or to participate in the school's Summer Institutes. Josef and Anni Albers, John Cage, Robert Creeley, Merce Cunningham, Max Dehn, Joseph Fiore, Buckminister Fuller, Edward Lowinsky, Robert Motherwell, Charles Olson, M.C. Richards, and Xanti Schawinsky were only a few of those who taught at Black Mountain College. In addition, the success of several of the college's students (such as Ruth Asawa, Edward Dorn, Kenneth Noland, and Robert Rauschenberg) helped to further the college's reputation in the area of the arts and the avant garde.

The character and focus of Black Mountain College shifted over time, according to the make-up of the faculty and students. Personal and ideological conflicts were common and sometimes lead to major changes in the college community. Lack of funds added to the stress of the situation, as did the school's physical isolation and its sometimes strained relations with the local population. Eventually, the student enrollment and available funds dwindled until the college was forced to close in 1956.


Clark Howell Foreman (1902-1977), an advocate for civil rights in the South, taught political science at Black Mountain College during the 1943-1944 school year.

Black Mountain College was an experimental school located in Black Mountain, N.C. Established in 1933 by John A. Rice and others, the purpose of the college was to educate the whole person, with an emphasis on the role of the arts and creative thinking. Despite the fact that Black Mountain College could rarely offer faculty more than room and board, a number of important teachers and artists were drawn to the school as part of the regular faculty or to participate in the school's Summer Institutes. Josef and Anni Albers, John Cage, Robert Creeley, Merce Cunningham, Max Dehn, Joseph Fiore, Buckminister Fuller, Edward Lowinsky, Robert Motherwell, Charles Olson, M.C. Richards, and Xanti Schawinsky were only a few of those who taught at Black Mountain College. In addition, the success of several of the college's students (such as Ruth Asawa, Edward Dorn, Kenneth Noland, and Robert Rauschenberg) helped to further the college's reputation in the area of the arts and the avant garde.

The character and focus of Black Mountain College shifted over time, according to the make-up of the faculty and students. Personal and ideological conflicts were common and sometimes lead to major changes in the college community. Lack of funds added to the stress of the situation, as did the school's physical isolation and its sometimes strained relations with the local population. Eventually, the student enrollment and available funds dwindled until the college was forced to close in 1956.


[Identification of item], PC.1545, Clark Foreman Papers, State Archives of North Carolina, Western Regional Archives, Asheville, NC, USA.


Gift of Clark Foreman, February 6, 1974. During March-April, 2012, these records were moved from the State Archives building in Raleigh to the Western Regional Archives, Asheville, N.C.


Additional information on topics found in this collection may be found in the Manuscript and Archives Reference System (MARS)  http://mars.archives.ncdcr.gov.

  1.  List of Black Mountain College collections at the State Archives of North Carolina.  Black Mountain College Records, 1933-1956, Western Regional Archives, Asheville, N.C. (These records have been described in the online Manuscript and Archives Reference System (MARS). See link above.)  Martin Duberman Collection, 1933-1980, PC 1678, State Archives of North CarolinaRaleigh, N.C.  North Carolina Museum of Art, Black Mountain College Research Project, 1933-1973, Western Regional Archives, Asheville, N.C.

The papers contain letters and articles related to Black Mountain College. Eight of the letters are correspondence (May 17, 1942-March 29, 1944) between Foreman, William Robert Wunch, Theodore Dreier, and Kenneth Kurtz concerning the hiring and reappointment of Clark Foreman; also discussed in these letters are faculty salaries, events at the college, and the effects of World War II. Two letters (both dated July 20, 1944) from Theodore Dreier deal with two students who were arrested while hitchhiking from Chattanooga and the resulting disagreements among the faculty involving Frances de Graaff and Eric Bentley in particular. During his time at the college Foreman was closely associated with Frances de Graaff and Eric Bentley. He along with other students and faculty resigned when the Board of Fellows considered a resolution urging de Graaff and Bentley to not accept reappointment. These incidents are often referred to in other Black Mountain College related collections as the "1944 Faculty Crisis."

Also included in the papers are the essay "The Story of Black Mountain College" (1943) by Clark Foreman, which discusses the school's history, educational theories, and "needs for the future," and "Summary of Discussions Regarding Admission of Negro Students" (n.d.) by Clark Foreman.


The papers contain letters and articles related to Black Mountain College. Eight of the letters are correspondence (May 17, 1942-March 29, 1944) between Foreman, William Robert Wunch, Theodore Dreier, and Kenneth Kurtz concerning the hiring and reappointment of Clark Foreman; also discussed in these letters are faculty salaries, events at the college, and the effects of World War II. Two letters (both dated July 20, 1944) from Theodore Dreier deal with two students who were arrested while hitchhiking from Chattanooga and the resulting disagreements among the faculty involving Frances de Graaff and Eric Bentley in particular. During his time at the college Foreman was closely associated with Frances de Graaff and Eric Bentley. He along with other students and faculty resigned when the Board of Fellows considered a resolution urging de Graaff and Bentley to not accept reappointment. These incidents are often referred to in other Black Mountain College related collections as the "1944 Faculty Crisis."

Also included in the papers are the essay "The Story of Black Mountain College" (1943) by Clark Foreman, which discusses the school's history, educational theories, and "needs for the future," and "Summary of Discussions Regarding Admission of Negro Students" (n.d.) by Clark Foreman.


  • Bentley, Eric, 1916-
  • De Graaff, Frances
  • Dreier, Theodore, 1902-1997.
  • Foreman, Clark, 1902-1977
  • Kurtz, Kenneth, 1907-
  • Wunsch, William Robert, 1896-
  • Black Mountain College (Black Mountain, N.C.)
  • College students--North Carolina
  • College teachers--Salaries, etc.--North Carolina
  • Education, Humanistic
  • Interpersonal conflict
  • Race relations
  • School integration
  • Universities and colleges--North Carolina--History
  • World War, 1939 - 1945