Alvah Ward, Jr. Papers, PC.5083

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Alvah Ward, Jr. Papers, PC.5083

Abstract

This collection primarily focuses on Dare County residents Alvah Haff Ward, Sr. (1894-1952) and his son, Alvah Haff Ward, Jr. (1929-), and their efforts to maintain an accessible waterway at Oregon Inlet, as well as their professional interests. The bulk of the collection consists of material related to the Oregon Inlet Project, Wanchese Harbor Project, Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park, and Manteo/Shallowbag Bay Project. Additionally, a significant portion of the collection consists of material related to Alvah, Jr.'s book, When Ice Came to the Outer Banks.

Descriptive Summary

Title
Alvah Ward, Jr. Papers
Call Number
PC.5083
Creator
Ward, Alvah Haff, 1929-
Date
1902-2017
Extent
6.32 cubic feet
Language
English
Repository
Outer Banks History Center

Restrictions on Access & Use

Access Restrictions

Available for research.

Use Restrictions

Copyright is retained by the authors of these materials, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law (Title 17 US Code). Individual researchers are responsible for using these materials in conformance with copyright law as well as any donor restrictions accompanying the materials.

Preferred Citation

[identification of item], PC.5083, Alvah Ward, Jr. Papers, Outer Banks History Center, Manteo, NC, U.S.A.

Collection Overview

The Alvah Ward, Jr. Papers, 1902-2017, consists of papers primarily related to the professional interests of Alvah Ward, Sr. and Alvah Ward, Jr. The bulk of the collection consists of material related to the Oregon Inlet Project, Wanchese Harbor Project, Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park, and Manteo/Shallowbag Bay Project. Papers include correspondence, articles, reports, maps, meeting minutes, reference material, planning documents, briefs, and proposals from vendors. In addition to these major projects, the collection also includes documents related to the seafood industry generally and other organizations associated with North Carolina fisheries.

A significant portion of the collection consists of material related to Alvah, Jr.'s book, When Ice Came to the Outer Banks. These papers include drafts and proofs of the book's first and second editions, publicity and promotional material, and research materials gathered by Ward when writing the manuscript. Most of the research materials are original records related to the Dare County Ice and Storage Company left to Alvah, Jr. by his father, but reproductions of photographs and other items found by Alvah, Jr. in private collections, archival repositories, and online are also included.

The collection also includes Alvah, Jr.'s personal papers, including correspondence, news clippings, photographs, family papers, and publications.

Arrangement Note

This collection is arranged into 7 series: Oregon Inlet Project, 1947-1975; Wanchese Harbor Project and Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park, 1965-1981; Manteo and Shallowbag Bay, 1965-1981; Other Organizations, 1967-1978; When Ice Came to the Outer Banks, 1902-2017; North Carolina Fisheries Association, 1958-1968; and Personal Papers, circa 1918-1981. Original order has been retained.

Biographical and Historical Note

This collection primarily focuses on Alvah Haff Ward, Sr. (1894-1952) and his son, Alvah Haff Ward, Jr. (1929-), and their efforts to maintain an accessible waterway at Oregon Inlet, as well as their professional interests. Oregon Inlet is the northern-most inlet in North Carolina and an important waterway for charter fishing boats, commercial fishing vessels, and recreational boaters. Although the inlet has existed since 1846, it has migrated at least two miles to the south since that time and changed in shape and appearance. The inlet's channel, which continually shoals with the ever-moving sand created by the outflow, is maintained by a dredge.

The initial efforts to provide access from Pamlico Sound and adjacent waterways to the sea through Oregon Inlet, began during World War II under the leadership of Alvah Ward, Sr. (1894-1952). Alvah, Sr. owned and operated the only ice manufacturing facility in the area, the Dare County Ice and Storage Company, so commercial fishing was especially important to his business. By the 1940s, North Carolina's commercial fishing fleet was mostly shrimp trawlers from the southeastern coast, which were forced to navigate Hatteras and Drum Inlets, as well as maneuver around Cape Lookout, Cape Hatteras, and the treacherous Diamond Shoals. The traditional fishery was on a rapid decline, and so was the economy of Dare County. After Alvah, Sr. mounted what became a ten-year, coastal-wide grassroots effort to have Oregon Inlet deepened, Congress finally authorized the Manteo-Shallowbag Bay Navigation Project. It provided for a deepened channel 14 feet across the bar, with a channel 12 feet deep from the bar to deep water in Pamlico Sound and to Manteo Harbor with a side channel to Wanchese Harbor.

In 1954, following Alvah, Sr.'s death, his son, Alvah, Jr., returned to Manteo to manage family interests. Alvah, Jr. had graduated from the Citadel in 1951 and had been commissioned into the United States Army. The Dare County Board of Commissioners asked Alvah, Jr. to continue to pursue the Oregon Inlet deepening project. After considerable effort, which included briefs written by Alvah, Jr. and Ben Dixon MacNeill, and through the efforts of the Dare County Board of Commissioners, Congressman Herbert C. Bonner, and Walter B. Jones, Sr., the actual construction and deepening was finished in 1958.

Soon after the deepening of Oregon Inlet, Wanchese and fishing interests throughout eastern North Carolina began to expand operations. As a result, fishery landings greatly increased, and Wanchese emerged as a leading fishing port, despite continued shoaling in the inlet. At the request of industry and county government, Alvah, Jr. agreed to address the justification for the permanent stabilization of Oregon Inlet with a jetty system. Proper justification was presented on several occasions and finally Congressional approval for construction was granted in 1970. Almost immediately, opposition by organized environmental groups throughout the nation emerged, led by the Department of the Interior who saw the loss of land required for anchoring the north jetty as a threat to their national mandates. This project would go uncompleted.

Alvah Jr. joined the North Carolina Department of Commerce in 1969 as a Marine Industries Consultant to the General Development Staff in Raleigh. In this position, he submitted the concept of a seafood industrial park to the Coastal Plains Regional Commission (CPRC), headed by Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter. This would become the Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park. Alvah, Jr. conducted marketing plans for the facility and engaged seafood and marine related interests nationwide, who were committed to locating, receiving, processing, and marketing facilities within the park after completion. The Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park was completed on schedule, and under budget, without a large outlay of state funds. All plans were based on the concept of offloading ocean-going vessels of considerable tonnage at Wanchese. After it became clear that Oregon Inlet would not be stabilized, interest began to wane, and the state amended the mission of the facility to include all marine interests.

After retirement, Alvah, Jr. used his father's papers to write a historical nonfiction book with coauthor R. Wayne Gray entitled When Ice Came to the Outer Banks: A Local History of Ice and its Impact on the Development of the Coastal Region. As of 2020, Alvah, Jr. still resides in Dare County.

Contents of the Collection

1. Oregon Inlet Project, 1947-1975

Oregon Inlet and Related Channels [2 folders], 1948-1965
Box 1
Miscellaneous, 1947-1951
Box 1
Oregon Inlet Project [4 folders], 1948-1950
Box 1
Torpedo Junction, 1951
Box 2
Oregon Inlet Project [2 folders], 1951-1952
Box 2
The State Magazine, 18 July 1953
Box 2
Oregon Inlet Project [7 folders], 1954-1960
Box 2
Market Reports and Other Publications, 1960
Box 2
Market Reports, 1961
Box 3
Oregon Inlet Project, 1962
Box 3
Market Reports and Other Publications, 1962
Box 3
Market Reports, 1963
Box 3
Oregon Inlet Project [2 folders], 1963-1964
Box 3
Market Reports, 1964
Box 3
Dare County Waterways Improvement, 1964
Box 3
Deposition of Dare County Commissioners, 1965
Box 4
Invoices Rendered, 1965
Box 4
Public Hearing Correspondence, 1965
Box 4
Market Reports, 1965
Box 4
Deep-Draft Shift Channel Through an Appropriate Inlet, 1965
Box 4
Deep Water Channel (Lee's Creek) Through an Appropriate Inlet, 1965
Box 4
Reference, Dare County Waterways Improvement Committee, 1965
Box 4
Public Hearing, Col. G.W. Gillette, 1965
Box 4
Reference Material for Completed Brief, 1965
Box 4
Late Brief Material to be Forwarded to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1965
Box 4
Public Hearing, Trawler Information, 1965
Box 4
Oregon Inlet Project, 1965
Box 4
Wanchese Harbor Development, 1966
Box 5
Hampton Market Reports, 1966
Box 5
New York Market Reports, 1966
Box 5
Boston Market Reports [3 folders], 1966
Box 5
Vessel Certification, 1966
Box 5
Miscellaneous Reference Materials, 1966
Box 5
Oregon Inlet Project, 1966
Box 5
Wanchese Harbor Development, 1967
Box 5
Hampton Market Reports, 1967
Box 5
Boston Market Reports, 1967
Box 5
Oregon Inlet Project, 1967
Box 5
Miscellaneous Reference Materials, 1967
Box 6
Fishery Market News Reports, 1968
Box 6
Reference Material File, 1968
Box 6
Oregon Inlet Project [5 folders], 1968-1972
Box 6
Environmental Meetings, 1975
Box 6
SE & E Assessment, 1975
Box 6

2. Wanchese Harbor Project and Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park, 1965-1981

Manteo Harbor Improvements and Modified Channel to Albemarle Sound, 1965
Box 6
Oregon Inlet Project Justification and Support, 1974
Box 6
Wanchese Harbor Project Citizen's Advisory Council, 1978-1979
Box 6
Environmental Statement Draft, 1976
Box 6
Sea Grant Proposals: Wanchese Harbor Development: A Study of Local Level Socioeconomic Development, 1978
Box 7
Marine Crafts Training Proposal, 1978-1979
Box 7
Brownsville Navigation District, Port of Brownsville, Texas, 1977-1978
Box 7
Engineering and Architectural Services, 1977-1978
Box 7
Construction Plans and Building Specifications, Phase I, 1978
Box 7
Access Road Property and Construction, 1977
Box 7
Aerial Photo of Dredging, 1977
Box 7
Architectural and Engineering Design Company Selection Process, 1977
Box 7
Oregon Inlet Project Water Resources Congress, 1975-1976
Box 7
Oregon Inlet Project General Development [2 folders], 1973-1976
Box 7
Wanchese Harbor Project General Development [2 folders], 1976
Box 8
Wanchese Harbor Project General Development [2 folders], 1977
Box 8
Oregon Inlet Project Area Port Maps and Plans, 1972-1976
Box 8
SPA Master Plans, 1975
Box 8
Economic Development Administration [2 folders], 1975-1977
Box 8
General Design Memorandum, Phase I, 1976
Box 8
Summary of OCE, BERH, and SAD Comments on Manteo Phase I, 1976
Box 8
Oregon Inlet Project Site Procurement and Spoil, 1974-1976
Box 8
The State Magazine, 15 October 1965
Box 9
North Carolina Department of Natural and Economic Development, 1974-1976
Box 9
Wanchese Harbor Project Processed Inquiries, 1975-1979
Box 9
Wanchese Harbor Project General Development [2 folders], 1980
Box 9
Manteo Shallowbag Bay Project Post Authorization and Funding, 1979
Box 9
Supporting Data and Briefs, 1974
Box 9
Wanchese Harbor, 1975-1976
Box 9
General Environmental Report on the Seafood Industrial Parks Program by the Coastal Plains Regional Commission, 1975-1976
Box 9
Title IX, 1975
Box 9
Wanchese Harbor Development Marine Science Council: Coastal and Marine Affairs, 1975
Box 10
Pre-Application Conference, 1976
Box 10
CPRC-MRAC: Site Inspection, 1975
Box 10
Wanchese Harbor Application, 1976
Box 10
Wanchese Backup Information, 1978
Box 10
Wanchese Harbor Presentation, 1976
Box 10
Coastal Plains Regional Commission, State Clearinghouse No. 76-0578, 1976
Box 10
Wanchese Harbor Development Project Status Report, 1977
Box 10
Engineering Companies, 1976
Box 10
Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park Design Qualifications, Lockwood-Greene Architects, 1976
Box 10
Reference Projects: Norgaard, 1979
Box 11
Preliminary Engineering Report, 1979
Box 11
Client Activity, 1980
Box 11
Weekly Reports: Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park [2 folders], 1980-1981
Box 11
Project Description, Wanchese Harbor Project, 1981
Box 11
Industrial Prospect Handling Administrative Procedures, 1980
Box 11
Seafood Industrial Park Authority Legislation, 1978-1979
Box 11
Henry von Oesen and Associates, Water and Wastewater, 1975
Box 11
Wanchese Seafood Harbor: Reference File, Potential Clients, 1974-1979
Box 11
Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park Informational Booklets, circa 1979
Box 11
Wanchese Harbor and Oregon Inlet Stabilization [Folder 1 of 2], 1981
Box 11
Wanchese Harbor and Oregon Inlet Stabilization [Folder 2 of 2], 1981
Box 12
Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park Guidelines and Lease Agreements, circa 1981
Box 12

3. Manteo and Shallowbag Bay, 1965-1981

Dare County Board of Commissioners Public Hearing: Manteo (Shallowbag Bay), Channel to Oregon Inlet, and Channel to Wanchese, 1965
Box 12
USCE Justification: Frank Snipes [2 folders], 1975-1976
Box 12
USCE Justification Photographs, 400 Bushel Clam Catch, 1976
Box 12
Manteo Shallowbag Bay/Wanchese Harbor Project General Development [3 folders], 1975-1981
Box 13

4. Other Organizations, 1967-1978

Coastal Plains Regional Commission: Seafood Industrial Park, 1976
Box 14
Seafood Industries Development Management by Objectives, 1974-1976
Box 14
State-Federal Management Fisheries Program, 1973
Box 14
Lockwood-Greene, Inc. Architects and Engineers, 1977-1978
Box 14
Seafood and Sunshine Caravan, 1969
Box 14
Tar Heel Tour to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1967
Box 14
Seafood Ad-Hoc Committee: Coastal Plains Regional Commission, 1974
Box 14
Albemarle Area Development Association, ARPDC, The Oregon Inlet Project, 1972
Box 14
Application for the Establishment of a Fisheries and Marine Division for Mid-East Economic Development Commission and Neuse River Economic Development Commission, 1969
Box 14
Fishery Conservation Management Act Fact Sheet, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1976
Box 14

5. When Ice Came to the Outer Banks, 1902-2017

Drafts and Publicity, 2011-2014

Draft: First Edition [2 folders], 2011-2013
Box 14
Draft: First Edition, Text Only, circa 2012
Box 14
Draft: First Edition Proof, 2013
Box 14
Draft: Second Edition Proof, 2013
Box 14
Draft: Second Edition General File, 2013
Box 15
Book Signing, 2013
Box 15
Book Promotion, 2013-2014
Box 15
Melvin Sketch Reference Material: Ice Handling and Ice Schooner Cover, 2012
Box 15

Research Material, 1902-2017

A.H.W. Sr. Ice Plant, 1928-2012
Box 15
Wanchese Process, 2012
Box 15
News Clipping File: Seafood Development, 1964-1973
Box 15
Oregon Inlet Stabilization, 1964-2011
Box 15
Oregon Inlet Stabilization, Fishing Trawler Operations, Wanchese Harbor Development, 1965-2012
Box 15
Research, 2008-2012
Box 16
Original Customer Rosters, 2012
Box 16
Dare County Ice and Storage Company Papers, 1958-1964
Box 16
Wanchese Plant Old Ledger Records of Sale, circa 2012
Box 16
Maps, 2011-2012
Box 16
Ice Schooners, 2011-2012
Box 16
Globe Fish Co. Operations, 1929-2013
Box 16
First Plants Constructed at Skyco, 2011
Box 16
Storms, 1944-2012
Box 16
Special Letters and Documents: Sale of Manteo Plant, circa 2012
Box 16
Alvah Ward File, 1947-2009
Box 16
Sale of Plant: Dare Ice Co. Reddy Ice, 2011
Box 16
Competition File, 1930-circa 2012
Box 16
News Articles: Plant in Manteo, Initial Plant and Renovations, 1945-1987
Box 16
Wanchese Wharf Plant, 1928-2012
Box 16
Excerpts from Benjamin Cahoon Letters (1901-1902), 2017
Box 16
Photographs, Ephemera, and Maps, 1927-2014
Box 17
Report for Manteo Boatbuilding Company, Inc., 1945
Box 17
Images Reproduced for Book, 2011-2012
Box 17
Photo File (Duplicates), 2012
Box 17
Letter from Mamie Daniels to Benjamin Franklin Cahoon, 1902
Box 17
Ledgers, 1928-1953
Accounts, 1928-1929
Box 18
Deliveries, Household and Commercial, 1929-1930
Box 18
Accounts, 1930-1932
Box 18
Sales Ledger, 1931
Box 18
General Sales Ledger, 1932-1933
Box 18
General Sales Ledger, 1934-1935
Box 19
Ice Record, Daily Production, 1936-1953
Box 19
Raleigh Arms Apartments, 1938-1947
Box 19
Manteo Deliveries, Household and Commercial, 1945-1946
Box 19
Commercial Accounts, 1949-1952
Box 20

6. North Carolina Fisheries Association, 1958-1968

Correspondence, 1958
Box 20
North Carolina Fisheries Association [4 folders], 1965-1968
Box 20

7. Personal Papers, circa 1918-1981

Correspondence [2 folders], 1973-1979
Box 17
Press Clippings: Manteo/Shallowbag Bay/Wanchese Harbor Project [4 folders], 1974-1980
Box 17
Dare County Tourist Bureau, 1943-1964
Box 20
Pirates Jamboree, 1951-1961
Box 20
Newspaper Clippings: The Sentinel, Winston Salem, "Industry for Wanchese: The Great Leap Forward?", 1977
Box 21
Newspaper Clippings: Division of Fisheries, 1970-1975
Box 21
Marketing Restaurants, 1981
Box 21
Wanchese Harbor Promotional Material: The Fish Boat Magazine, 1966-1980
Box 21
Wanchese Harbor Promotional Material: North Carolina Magazine, 1974, 1981
Box 21
Wanchese Harbor Promotional Material: Other Magazines, 1966-1981
Box 21
Hearings before the Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, 1961
Box 21
Carteret County Seafood Processing Project, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1968-1969
Box 21
Facts and Figures: North Carolina, Her Ports, and Their Facilities, 1973
Box 21
National Marine Fisheries Service Processed Products: Processors of Fishery Products in the U.S., 1975
Box 22
Fishery Statistics of the United States, 1941
Box 22
North Carolina Commercial Fisheries Newsletter, 1965-1966
Box 22
Wholesale Dealers of Fishery Products in the U.S., 1976
Box 22
Eastland Resolution Fisheries Survey: North Carolina Consolidation of Comments and Suggestions by Commercial and Sportfishing Interests, 1976
Box 22
North Carolina Seafood Industry Present Situation, 1973
Box 22
Analysis of the Economic Impact on Northeastern North Carolina, Resulting from the Development of Wanchese Harbor and the Deepening and Stabilization of Oregon Inlet, circa 1975
Box 22
The Port of Wanchese, North Carolina's New Bedford of the South, 1974
Box 22
The Port of Wanchese: A new Concept in Development of North Carolina's Seafood Industry, 1975
Box 22
Coastal Plains Regional Commission Annual Report, 1979
Box 22
New England Fisheries Steering Committee Newsletter, 1981
Box 22
Prospects for Fisheries: Development Assistance, 1974
Box 22
Prices Received by Fishermen, 1973-1974
Box 22
The Market in Western Europe for Dogfish, Squid, Mussels, Skate, Monkfish, Whiting, 1976
Box 22
Fish and Shellfish Purchased by Domestic Zoos and Aquariums, circa 1974
Box 22
Wanchese Harbor Projects: Area Photograph Negatives, 1974
Box 22
Aerial Photographs: Wanchese Harbor, 1974-1976
Box 22
Photographs of Wanchese Harbor, circa 1970s
Box 22
Aerial Photographs, Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, circa 1970s
Box 22
World War II Window Shade Pull Warning Tag, 1940s
Box 22
World War I Educational Bulletin (Fragment), circa 1918
Box 22
Roster for Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp Wirth, 1937
Box 22
Oregon Inlet and Wanchese Harbor Maps, Photographs, and Unidentified List of Ships, 1974-1976
Folder Oversize Folder 1

Subject Headings

  • Ward, Alvah Haff, 1894-1952
  • Dare County Ice and Storage Company (N.C.)
  • Wanchese Seafood Industrial Park (Wanchese, N.C.)
  • Dredging--North Carolina
  • Fisheries--North Carolina--Roanoke Island
  • Ice industry--North Carolina--Roanoke Island
  • Trawls and trawling--North Carolina
  • Seafood industry--North Carolina
  • Oregon Inlet (N.C.)--History--20th century
  • Wanchese (N.C.)--History
  • Oregon Inlet (N.C.)--Environmental conditions
  • Shallowbag Bay (N.C.)--History--20th century
  • Acquisitions Information

    Donated by Alvah Ward, Jr., October 1997, October 2015, and May 2017, and June 2017.

    Processing Information

  • Processed by Samantha Crisp, February 2020.