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Joseph and William Peace Account Book, 1823-1864


The J. and W. Peace general store was located on Fayetteville Street in Raleigh, Wake County from approximately 1798 until 1832. Joseph Peace (1766-1842) and his younger brother William Peace (1773-1865) were the proprietors of the store.This collection contains one ledger. Recorded merchandise includes spirits, tobacco, sugar, patent medicines, housewares, hardware, cloth, and stationery. In addition, the Peace brothers kept a record of slaves owned by them and other family members, with slave birth and death dates ranging from 1784 to 1864.

Title

Joseph and William Peace Account Book, 1823-1864

Collection Number

PC.AB.132

Date(s)

1823-1864

Physical Description
Ledger, 1 bound volume, 308 pages less pages overwritten and cut
Abstract

The J. and W. Peace general store was located on Fayetteville Street in Raleigh, Wake County from approximately 1798 until 1832. Joseph Peace (1766-1842) and his younger brother William Peace (1773-1865) were the proprietors of the store.This collection contains one ledger. Recorded merchandise includes spirits, tobacco, sugar, patent medicines, housewares, hardware, cloth, and stationery. In addition, the Peace brothers kept a record of slaves owned by them and other family members, with slave birth and death dates ranging from 1784 to 1864.

Creator

Peace family

Repository

State Archives of North Carolina


The ledger is arranged by name, then date for store transactions and financial records.


Processed by Lea Walker, February 2018

Finding aid by Lea Walker, February 2018


Joseph and William Peace were brothers born in Granville County, North Carolina. Their father, John M. Peace (1742-1821) was a wealthy planter who owned lands near his father and brother in the Wilton area. Their mother, Margaret Scott Barr Peace (1738-1820) had been married to a Barr, by whom she had one son and two daughters. Her second marriage to John M. Peace provided six additional children: four sons and two daughters.

In November 1798, Joseph and William Peace opened a general store on Fayetteville Street in Raleigh. For many years, they lived together on the store premises. In addition to being successful merchants, they purchased land, houses and other store buildings as rental properties. They continued to own land along Tabbs Creek in Granville County, probably inherited from their father.

In October 1832, a fire demolished the brothers' store, living quarters and $1,000 worth of stock. In addition, they lost two other stores occupied by tenants. The two brothers chose not to rebuild but continued to pursue their other business interests jointly.

Joseph Peace died intestate in 1842. Although he and William appeared to live much of their lives as bachelors, court documents from the 1840s reveal that he "had a family of children, whom he recognized, and for whom and their mother, he provided a house and servants and other necessaries, and defrayed the expenses of their education, as a parent. After the 1832 fire, Joseph and his family moved into a house owned by the partnership and lived there with them for the ten years preceding his death." The 1840 Census reveals that William was living there also.

Although Joseph's children are not explicitly identified, his son-in-law John Wynne Young (active 1815-1847) is named in the court proceedings. Marriage bonds show that John W. Young applied for a license to marry Nancy [or Ann] Peace (1794-1822) on 19 July 1815. In May 1817, minutes of the Wake County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions show that "Julia Langley natural daughter of Joseph Peace of the City of Raleigh" petitioned to have her name changed to Julia Peace (1801-1877).

The account book provides additional evidence of Julia Peace's relationship to Joseph's family. In a transaction recorded in August 1847, T. J. Lemay (1802-1863) relinquished funds to Julia. Lemay was the son of Lewis Lemay (approximately 1767-1810) and Lucy Peace Lemay (died 1835), sister of Joseph and William. William Peace relinquished funds to Julia in August 1851 and again in September 1851. He continued to provide cash amounts each year from 1852 through 1864, totaling over $7,600. In addition, William's will stipulated that half of Joseph's remaining estate was to go to Julia and half to Joseph's two surviving grandchildren.

By 1850, William Peace (1773-1865) had moved in with Joseph's granddaughter Ann Augusta Young (died 1852) and her husband William Woods Holden (1818-1892). Even after Ann's death and William's remarriage, he continued to reside with the Holden family.

Peace referred to his plantation as Swift Creek Plantation, sometimes using the initials S. C. to abbreviate it. Transactions on page 36 in the account book show that he purchased the land prior to 23 August 1828 from brothers Levi and Lemuel Jones (both active 1808-1828). According to an 1847 newspaper item regarding a lost or stolen filly, the plantation was located approximately seven miles southwest of Raleigh. William Peace's line and corner were referred to as boundaries in the 1864 Penny deed when the partnership of Briggs and Dodd sold 1,788 acres to James Penny (1817-1904). In addition, the deed noted a previous transaction in which Briggs, Dodd and Penny had sold their mill seat, pond, and ninety-four acres to Penny's son-in-law Pharis [Phares] Yates (active 1817-1902). The 1871 Bevers map of Wake County shows Yates Mill, Penney's Mill, and Peace's Plantation, all located in Swift Creek Township in close proximity to one another, thereby providing additional corroboration of the plantation's location.

Peace's name appears in the federal slave schedules of 1850 and 1860. Presumably, many of his slaves lived on his Swift Creek Plantation. Thirty-seven slaves were enumerated in the Western Division of Wake County in 1850. A total of fifty-one slaves were listed in the Southern Division of the county in the 1860 slave schedule.

In 1857, William Peace gave land and pledged $10,000 to establish an educational institution for women. In recognition of Peace's substantial contributions, the Presbyterian school was named Peace Institute (later Peace College, thereafter William Peace University). The street at the southern boundary of the campus carried the Peace name also. Although construction began in 1859, the opening of the institute was delayed due to the Civil War and Reconstruction. To ensure completion of the project, Peace added a codicil to his will, entrusting the money to the Reverend Joseph M. Atkinson (1820-1891) who was Peace's pastor at the First Presbyterian Church. The main building was completed hastily in 1862 so that it could be converted to a Civil War hospital. After the war, the building was pressed into service as the headquarters of the Freedmen's Bureau. Peace Institute opened its doors in 1872, seven years after Peace's death.


[Identification of item], Private Collections: Account Books, AB.132, Joseph and William Peace Account Book, 1823-1864, State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC, USA.


Unknown


This volume provides a record of transactions of a general store from 1823 to 1833. The store was located on Fayetteville Street in Raleigh from approximately 1798 to 1832. The proprietors were two brothers, Joseph and William Peace. Merchandise included tobacco products, spirits, loaf sugar, stationery, cloth, and hardware.

The brothers used this account book to document slaves owned by them, their two brothers, and their two nephews. Although the slave listings were written in the years 1830 and 1852, the slave birth and death dates range from 1784 to 1864. In addition, the ledger includes accounts of real estate dealings, household accounts, and other financial business.


Bevers, Fendol.  Map of Wake County. N. p.: Nichols and Gorman, 1871. State Archives of North Carolina,  North Carolina Maps [from dc.lib.unc.edu]; Briggs and Dodd to James Penny, 16 May 1864, Book 24, p. 318, Wake County Register of Deeds, Raleigh [from wakegov.com]; Broughton, Carrie L., comp.  Marriage and Death Notices in Raleigh Register and North Carolina State Gazette, 6 vols. (Raleigh: State Library of North Carolina, 1944-1952), 1:138 and 2:337 [from digital.ncdcr.gov];  Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, s. v. "Joseph Mayo Atkinson," "William Woods Holden," "William Peace" [from ncpedia.org];  William W. Holden v. William Peace,  Iredell's Reports of Cases in Equity Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of North Carolina 4 (1846): 223-231 [from hathitrust.org]; Gravestone of Ann Augusta [Young] Holden, City Cemetery, Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of Rev. Thomas J. Lemay, City Cemetery, Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of John M. Peace, Peace Graveyard, Wilton, Granville County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of John Mask Peace Sr., Peace Graveyard, Wilton, Granville County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of Joseph Peace, City Cemetery, Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of Julia Peace, City Cemetery, Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of Margaret Scott Barr Peace, Peace Graveyard, Wilton, Granville County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of Pleasant Peace, Peace Graveyard, Granville County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of William Peace, City Cemetery, Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of James Penny, Penny Family Cemetery, Garner, Wake County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of Phares Yates, Inwood Baptist Church Cemetery, Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com]; Gravestone of Ann Young [also known as Nancy Langley Peace Young] and child Joseph William Young, City Cemetery, Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, USA [from findagrave.com];  The Greensboro Patriot, 10 October 1832 [from newspapers.com]; Name change of Julia Langley to Julia Peace, May 1817, 1:188, Minutes of the Wake County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions (microfilm, State Library of North Carolina, Raleigh); National Register of Historic Places, Peace College Main Building, Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, #73001377 [from catalog.archives.gov and hpo.ncdcr.gov];  The Raleigh Minerva, 25 November 1805 [from newspapers.com];  The Raleigh Register, 02 Apr 1847 [from newspapers.com];  The Raleigh Register, 25 August, 1843 [from newspapers.com]; United States Federal Census: 1800, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860 [from ancestry.com];  Weekly Raleigh Register, 22 November 1804 [from newspapers.com];  The Weekly Standard, 26 October 1864 [from newspapers.com]; Will of William Peace [Codicil], 12 November 1860, Wake County Wills and Estate Papers, State Archives of North Carolina, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh [from ancestry.com]; Will of William Peace, August 1865, Wake County Wills and Estate Papers, State Archives of North Carolina, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh [from ancestry.com];  William Peace University: History and Tradition [from www.peace.edu]


  • Peace family
  • Peace, Joseph, 1766-1842
  • Peace, William, 1773-1865
  • Account books
  • General stores--North Carolina--Wake County
  • Grocery trade--North Carolina--Wake County
  • Registers of births, etc.--North Carolina--Wake County
  • Retail trade--North Carolina--Wake County
  • Slave records--North Carolina--Wake County
  • Slave trade--North Carolina--Wake County
  • Slaveholders--North Carolina--Wake County
  • Slaves--North Carolina--Wake County
  • African Americans--History--18th century
  • African Americans--History--19th century
  • Landowners--North Carolina
  • Stockholders--North Carolina
  • Raleigh (N.C.)
  • Wake County (N.C)
  • Granville County (N.C.)
  • Grocers--North Carolina--Wake County
  • Merchants--North Carolina

This volume is a ledger with marbleized end pages and debossed leather covers. The volume is identified on the spine as "D ledger" belonging to "J. & W. P." The Peace brothers used this volume to keep track of store transactions, slave records, real estate dealings, and other financial records. After Joseph Peace's death, William Peace continued to use the volume for his own purposes. Amounts are recorded in pounds, shillings and pence until approximately 1851; thereafter the dollar sign is used. For the store accounts, the earliest date entered is 4 July 1823 and the latest date entered is approximately 30 September 1833. William's records include the relinquishments for Julia Peace from 1843 to 1864, household accounts for William Holden from 1843 to 1851, and Peace Institute transactions from 1859 to 1862.

The slave records appear near the end of the volume. They include two recapitulations of slave ownership written in 1830 and 1852, listing birth and death dates of slaves from 1784 to 1864. William named himself and Joseph as slave owners along with their two brothers John Mask Peace (1774-1852) and Pleasant Peace (1775-1858). In addition, William recorded slaves belonging to two nephews: William R. Peace (1811-1891) and John P. Lemay (died 1864), presumably the sons of John Mask Peace and Lucy Peace Lemay, respectively. While most of the slaves stayed in Wake or Granville counties, it is noted that one slave moved to Marshall County, Mississippi with John P. Lemay.

The pages are hand numbered at the top left of each verso (LH) and the top right of each recto (RH). The book has a total of 308 legible or partly legible pages remaining, less pages overwritten and cut. The front page and an additional page glued to it list colts born on the Swift Creek Plantation. There are 272 numbered pages of store transactions or dealings related to the joint partnership of the two brothers. These are followed by an additional sixteen numbered pages in a separate financial records section. This section is followed by seventeen unnumbered and blank pages, with six of these listing the slave records. There is no index. Measurement of volume in inches: 11 1/2 x 17 1/2 x 2

FOLDER 1
Miscellaneous Inserts from Account Book
1843-1864, undated

Scope and Content

These inserts include memoranda, receipts, a note about slave births, and one original drawing of a woman's head and shoulders.

[7 pieces]